Use one of these guidelines as preparation for colonoscopy:

Recommended diets in gastrointerohepatological diseases

Gluten free diet


Meat: Pork, lamb, veal, chicken, turkey, duck, pheasant. Method of preparation: boiled, dried, fried, roasted.

Fish: All types of fish and shells are allowed.

Meat products: All kinds of homemade products, without any unwanted ingredients, prepared by yourself (ham, bacon, sausages, etc.).

Vegetables: All kinds of vegetables. The use of industrial canned vegetables is not certain due to the use of stabilizers and emulsifiers, which are mainly of origin and starch based. In this direction, it is allowed to use personally preserved vegetables where reliable preservatives that do not contain gluten are added in the production.

Fruit: All kinds of fresh fruit. The use of sugary fruit is allowed only if it is checked and is prepared by candying with the use of industrial crystalline sugar. In certain procedures, the manufacturer can use wheat flour products (during the drying process, the glass packaging, etc.) when preparing the frozen fruit. Pay attention to the use of dried prunes and dried figs (which are usually prepared with flouring).

Sometimes, industrial powdered sugar is used for cooking, which is not allowed because it contains 5% wheat starch to prevent hardening of sugar. Fruit juices, mashed potatoes, jam, marmalade, compotes and sweet fruits of all types with proven preservatives are allowed from home-made fruits. At present, in our country it is difficult to determine the composition of additives and their origin. For this reason, for all of the above-mentioned products, it is best to use them home made.


Grains and seeds: Nuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, almonds, hazelnuts, sesame seeds, chickpeas, peanuts (preferably baked in checked ovens), pistachios, acorns, chestnuts, mustard, poppy saffron, alfalfa seed and coconut. In the industrial process of baking these fruits, flour is often used to secure the adhesion of these products.

Soy is allowed, but not to use soy sauce (it may contain barley).

Milk: When you are not lactose intolerant, you can use milk, yogurt. Do not use industrially prepared fruit yogurts unless they have a gluten free declaration.

Cheeses: Cow, goat and sheep, mature or young, if they are prepared from a natural cheese. Not allowed if they are made by adding distilled white vinegar. The types of Edam, Parmesan, Mozzarella and Cheddar are allowed. Industrial creams or pasteurized cheeses can be used only if they are made by controlled ingredients. Do not use cheeses with preservatives.

Milk replacement: Rice, soybean, potato, coconut milk.

Oils: sunflower oil, olive and corn.

Vinegar: Apple, fruit, wine and corn without additives. Distilled white vinegar (which is derived from wheat) is not allowed.

Coffee: Freshly ground coffee. Often, in the process of coffee production, barley is added. Instant coffee and coffee with aromatic aroma can also contain wheat additives.

Cocoa: Pure cocoa is allowed without additives. Cooked cocoa treated with alkaline is not allowed.

Soup: All forms of homemade soup are allowed. It is not permitted to use industrial, restaurant, canned soups and stews in the form of cubes or powder.

Ice cream: It is allowed if it is sheltered at home without any unwanted accessories. Not to be used industrial, from vending machines and without proven composition, unless declared to be gluten-free.

Sweets: No industrially prepared candies, cakes, cakes, cream, chocolate, hard caramel, locum are to be used, unless declared as gluten-free and without allergens.

Sugar: Crystalline sugar, honey, natural brown sugar, fructose is also allowed. White sugar can be caramelized (the color of caramel may contain barley malt). Industrial sugar powder may contain 5% wheat starch to prevent collagenization.

Baking powder, yeast, margarine: the use of a strictly tested baking powder, yeast and margarine is allowed. Be careful about the composition in all these products.

Flour: It is allowed if it’s corn – yellow and white flour, corn flour, white rice flour, brown rice flour, sweet rice flour and rice, soy flour, potato flour and potato starch, chickpeas, chestnut flour, sorghum, almond and from hazelnuts.

All of the above mentioned flours are allowed if the raw materials used for their preparation are not stored in the same silos where wheat is stored and where the wheat, barley, rye and oats are blanched.

What is not allowed in a gluten-free diet?

Cereals: Wheat, rye, barley, oats, couscous.

Products from the above mentioned cereal flour, starch, grain, stubble, bread crumbs, bran, cellulose, malt, powdered mush, syrup, gelatin, vitamins.

Industrial products: Preservatives, additives, paints, emulsifiers…

They are not allowed in the composition of other products: pasta, macaroni, spaghetti, rice in a mix, cereals, curry powder, white pepper, sauces, mustard, ketchup, vanilla powder, vanilla sugar, the majority of chewing gum, sauces for salads, ready-made dishes, white halva, powdered sugar, pudding, yeast, baking powder, creams.

Meat products: Not all industrial products are allowed. Even turkey meat is technically processed with a hydrolyzed plant protein. Industrial fish products (in pasta, steaks, burgers, kebabs, canned vegetables) and similar products from shells, salami, etc.

In almost all of the above products, starch and other additives are used in the production process. Due to the inability to determine the origin of starch whose origin has not been declared, they are not advised to be used.

What is gluten-free?

Biotin, beta-carotene, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, pantothenate, carboxymethyl cellulose, acidum citricum, dextrose, sulfosuccinate, folic acid, fructose, lactose, lecithin, magnesium hydroxide, microcrystalline cellulose, monoglycerides, diglycerides, polyglycerides, polysorbate , potassium citrate, potassium iodide, propylene glycol, monostearate, propigalat, pyridoxynhydrochloride, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), sodium benzoate, sodium caseinate, sodium citrate, sodium, sucrose, sulfosuccinate, tartaric acid, thiamine hydrochloride, tricalciumphosphate, vitamin A, riboflavin , natr ijumpiridofosfat, tires (acacia, tragacanth, rubber arabica, carob, cellulose, xanthine).

Hidden gluten

When your doctor tells you about it, at that moment you cannot even imagine how simple it sounds, but in fact it’s very complicated. Gluten is not just in wheat, and not only bread and biscuits are at stake. Gluten is hidden everywhere, and is not called gluten, but under different names and symbols, and even in products where it is not mentioned, such as, for example,


Caramel color


French fries – A fresh potato french-fries made at home or a restaurant when the frying is done in pure oil is safe. But when the frying is done using the same oil for frying pan products (fried fish, chicken, etc.) is not recommended. When frozen, it should be taken into account because ingredients that can be of wheat origin are used to prevent the color change of the fries.

Hydrolyzed plant proteins (hvp) or (hpp)

They are most often found in canned products, sausages, peanuts. And they can be additives. The declaration does not say how this protein is made (soy, corn, rice, peanuts, or casein from milk or wheat). Do not use these products.

Seafood imitation: Although the imitation of seafood begins with a real fish product, they add a starch-linker, which may be corn starch, potato starch, tapioca, or wheat. Read the declaration before you purchase these products.

Medicines: Most tablet manufacturing products and capsules (for example carriers) use corn starch, lactose, but they also may use wheat. Syrups may also contain wheat-based substances (alcohol, vitamins based on wheat enzymes …)

Malt: Malt is widely spread as a sweetener, and can be made from corn, wheat or mainly from barley.

Modified starch: It is found on almost all soup declarations and can be made from corn, tapioca, potato starch, which is all safe, but unfortunately often prepared from wheat. It is the most common and cheapest way to thicken the products.

Tea: Teas are on the list of allowed and aromatic teas should be avoided.

Contamination: If you are cautious with your diet and do not think you are intaking gluten, but still feel the symptoms, can this be the cause of contamination?

There are many sources where there may be contamination:

If you are buying at a healthy food store, the same knives for gluten and gluten free are used.

Gluten-free flour can be packed through the same packaging line as for flour or gluten products.

White corn flour, lentils and other grains that are allowed in the diet of the patients and do not contain gluten can be blanched in the same factory, or a mill where wheat is processed which should be strictly taken into account.

Frequent sources of contamination are silos in which wheat is stored, followed by corn, as well as reservoirs for transport from silage to mills.

On all foreign chocolates, chocolate spreads, etc., at the bottom of the declaration can be read “in this product you can find traces of wheat or gluten”. This statement if often missing on local products and therefore the product may contain traces of gluten and should therefore be avoided.

In your own kitchen you need to pay attention to the toaster, trays, cake boxes, cakes, waffles, where trays can be trailed. Food preparation station must be separate. Dietary supplements must be separated. Foods used in non-gluten-free foods must be stored separately.

If you buy free-style biscuits with jam in a healthy food store, the biscuit can be gluten-free, but as far for the marmalade and jam is a question whether they contain gluten or not.

Диета кај синдром на иритабилно црево

ОПШТИ ПРАВИЛА: исхрана со мало количество на целулозни влакна, исхрана со нормално количество на масти и јаглени хидрати.


МЕСО:  сите видови месо и риба


МЛЕКО  и кисели млечни производи (кефир, матеница, кисело млеко, сирења).

МАСТИ: како путер, маргарин, зејтин.

ШЕЌЕРИ во вид на мед, слатка, мармалад, колачи

ОВОШЈЕ И ЗЕЛЕНЧУК во вид на сокови и пиреа

ЛЕБ во вид на бел леб, двопек, бисквити, макарони и пити


храна со поголемо количество на целулоза (сирово овошје со лушпа, црн леб)

зеленчук: краставици, легуминози – грав, грашак, боранија

патлиџан, пиперки, тиква

тврдо и жилаво месо


Диета кај стеатоза

ОПШТИ ПРИНЦИПИ: Исхрана богата со протеини, исхрана богата со јалени хидрати, исхрана со умерен внес на масти


ЛЕБ: црн леб, препечен, сите видови тестенини (освен масни пити), ориз, гриз.

МЕСО: сите видови посно младо месо и риба.

ЈАЈЦЕ: белка од јајце, жолчка не почесто од еднаш неделно

МЛЕКО: посно млеко, кисело млеко, посни несолени сирења, несолена урда.

ЗЕЛЕНЧУК: сите видови лиснат зеленчук и помалку компир.

ОВОШЈЕ: сите видови овошје и овошни сокови.

МАСТИ: зејтин по можност маслинов и путер ретко и умерено.

ШЕЌЕР: во умерени количини, слатки, мармалад, мед.

НАПИВКИ: слаб чај, слабо кафе, овошни сокови.

ЗАЧИНИ: умерено


  • Свинско, прасечко месо, јагнешко, овчо и јарешко месо
  • Пикантна и запржена храна
  • Масна и пржена храна
  • Легуминози (грав, грашок, боранија и соја)
  • Чоколада
  • Внатрешници
  • Алкохол
  • Масно овошје (ореви, бадеми, кикирики…)
  • Конзервиран зеленчук

БРОЈ НА ОБРОЦИ: по можност 6-8

КУЛИНАРСКА ОБРАБОТКА: варено, варено во водена бања и на пареа, печено – по можност без додатоци на зејтин и маснотии воопшто.

Diet in ulcerous colitis and Crohn's disease

GENERAL RULES: High-calorie foods rich in proteins and vitamins, composed of groceries with a small amount of cooked carrots.


Milk: milk and dairy products, eggs (if they can be withstood)

Meat: young meat (chicken, beef), non-fat and fresh fish, and fatty meats and lunch meats.

Bread: white bread, black bread, grizzly, rice.

Fruit: in the form of fruit juices, fruit jellies, mashed compotes, grated apples, quinces, drips, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries.

Vegetables: In the form of puree (potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, zucchini), in the form of juices (tomato, cabbage).


  • foods that produce gases, cabbage, kale, garlic, onion, leeks, cucumber, peas, beans
  • groceries that are not individually submitted·
  • alcohol
  • hard meat, veal meat, fried foods

NUMBER OF MEALS: 4 – 5 preferably

CULINARY PROCESSING: boiling, steaming or water bath, grill without additional fat, passage, grinding, preparation of fresh juices.

SALT: moderately (up to 10 g per day)

NOTE: Strict prohibitions apply only to the active phases of exacerbation of the disease, and beyond that the intake of food products is strictly individual according to the patient’s personal tolerance.

Diet in hiatal hernia

GENERAL PRINCIPLES: Diet with proteins, moderate carbohydrate intake and low in fat.


Candied, sweet, yoghurt, sour milk, young cheese, cottage cheese

MEAT: all kinds of non-fat meat and fish.

EGGS: up to three times per week.

CEREALS: bread, rice, potatoes.

FRUIT: all kinds of fruits.

VEGETABLES: all kinds.

DRINKS: fruit juices (which are not very acidic), tea.

SWEETS: compote, fruit jellies, not very fatty creams and sweets.


Full-fat milk, melted cheeses, curd, mayonnaise, fatty meats and fatty fish, very sweet fruits (date, dried fruits), fatty fruits (walnuts, almonds), vegetables with coarse veins and hard shell (leeks, kale, cabbage), alcohol, tobacco, peppermint-based products – mint spices (menta piperacea), gum in general and peppermint based candies, concentrated sweets and chocolate.


After eating, do not go to bed, but take a brief walk. Dinner should never be consumed right before bedtime. Sleeping should be on something higher, on an elevated pillow. Harsh foods and foods that mimic the mucous membrane (too spicy and sour dishes) should be avoided.


Cooked, roasted (it is not advisable to eat fried and fried in beadcrumbs food).

NUMBER OF MEALS: 4 – 5 small meals.

Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

Basic principles: diet rich in protein, normal amount of sugars and reduced fat intake


Milk and dairy products: all types of skimmed milk, yogurt and cow sour milk, non-fat cheeses and cottage cheese

Meat: all kinds of low-fat meat and fish (from poultry – chicken, goose, turkey, veal)

Eggs: egg white is allowed

Vegetables: all types of vegetables (prepared without a peel – purees, juices, and stewed vegetables)

Fat: vegetable fats (oil, margarine for preparing food in a small amount)

Bread: white bread, black bread, potatoes, rice, rusk.


  • whole milk, fatty melted cheeses
  • all fatty meat, meat with veins
  • egg yolk
  • fatty fruits (nuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios) and very sweet fruits (date and figs)
  • harsh vegetables that blow (cabbage, leeks and beans)
  • mayonnaise, too much spicy food, food that is prepared as fried, laced.

Culinary processing: It is recommended to prepare steam, boiled, roasted, with moderate spice supplement, 4-5 meals per day, in smaller quantities, well chewed food, not too hot or cold.


Nutrition in hepatic encephalopathy and coma

When a precoma is diagnosed with increased levels of ammonia and phenol in the blood serum (biochemical coma), the proteins in food are reduced to at least 40 g per day, mainly in the form of milk and dairy products. With an improvement of clinical symptoms and hyperammonemia, or phenolemia, the intake increases to 50 g per day. Fats should be limited for a longer period of time.

If hepatic coma occurs, intravenous increased amounts of glucose / 300-400 g pure glucose daily or 10% glucose are given.

Nutrition through the mouth consists of giving fluids (sweetened tea, juices, etc.) through a nasogastric tube or nasojejunal tube when the act of swallowing is affected. During this period, proteins and fats are avoided.

Исхрана на болни со жолчни калкули


Да нема прејадување и масно приготвена храна. Штетни храни се сите оние кои содржат голема количина на холестерол (мозок и внатрешници, жолчка од јајце, масни меса, масни риби, презли, грав и легуминози генерално). Мајонези, зачинета храна, спанаќ, расол, многу студени напитоци, сладолед и алкохол.


Леб, млеко и сите видови млечни производи, кравјо сирење, урда (подобро е да се применуваат во варена форма), ориз, компир, (пире најдобро), мед, слатки од секаков вид, овошни сокови. Сите видови овошје и зеленчук. Земање храна богата со витамин Ц. Пожелно е храната да се зема топла и во умерена количина. Од масти се дозволува зејтин и маслинов зејтин (како на примет во натурални видови на салата).

Nutrition of patients after stomach surgery


Protein (meat, cheese, fish, egg)

Fat in normal amount

Reduced intake of sugars in the diet


Large grains

Larger quantities of foods, that is, quantity voluminous and meaty meals

Use of fluids during meals is prohibited. They are advised to consume between meals and liquids with a reduced amount of sugars.

Concentrated foods are prohibited: dense juices, fruit syrups, various sweet potions, strong soups or stews.


To take 6 – 8 meals a day (in a smaller amount)

It is recommended to rest after eating, that is, after each meal.

Nutrition of patients with chronic hepatitis

General principles:

Food intake with normal amounts of protein and carbohydrates, and poorer with fat (especially of animal origin), rich in vitamins, less salt, and no cans and spicy foods.

Forbidden food:

Food that contain larger amounts of cholesterol: cereal, egg yolk, cuts, kidneys and inlets, oily fish and cheese, beans, cans, spinach, 
eggplant, garlic and hot food in general, salty and sour food.

Any alcohol.

Allowed food:

Milk, cottage cheese, especially eggs, cheese, lard (veal, chicken, beef and lamb), fish, egg whites, all kinds of vegetables (potatoes, carrots, sweet peppers, tomatoes, young cucumbers), fruit of all kinds (raspberries, strawberries, oranges, apples) grapes, etc.

White bread, biscuits, saccharin, bee honey and sweet and marmalade.

Nutrition of the patient with chronic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum


  1. The use of any type of alcohol, nicotine (smoking), heavy food and fresh bread (and similar foods with yeast) are prohibited.
  2. Eating meals should be frequent and small, best to take food every 3-4 hours.
  3. When eating, it should be eaten slowly and well chewed, the dentition should be properly and properly treated.

Food that should be avoided:

Food prepared with animal fat or fat, especially hot or fried fat and fat sausages, all spicy foods, spicy and angry, quenched and salted. Meat extracts, canned fish, sausages, strong soup or seasoned spices, roast, goulash, kidney, liver, pate and bacon. Vegetable that suits like: beans, cabbage, lentils, pasta and old green beans. Fat cakes, honey, black coffee, pancakes, especially strong teas, etc.

Food that is allowed:

Milk (pasteurized) boiled, sour milk, yogurt, potato, butter, whey, curd, uncooked cheese, egg (unwashed or chopped). Mineral water without carbon dioxide (CO2), pickled foods, not very sweetened, fruit juices, compotes and pudding.

How to set up the menu:

Breakfast: milk or coffee, a bunch of bread (baked bread) with a lot of butter.

Snack (at 9 o’clock): softly fried egg, milk or yogurt and bread with butter.

Lunch: soup or broth or mussel broth, lean meat – veal, beef or chicken, cooked or without fat.

Vegetables: potatoes only in the form of puree or boiled (neither fried nor roasted), dough and cooked meats, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage and spinach.

Fruits: fruit as compote, jelly or crude, and this apple, peach, banana, ripe strawberry. It is advisable to avoid apricot, cherry, blackberry, walnuts and almonds.

Dessert: juices, pudding (vanilla with milk), creams with curd.

Beverages: milk, yogurt, mineral water (alkaline), fruit juices.

Supper (at 18 o’clock): same as for breakfast.

Dinner: the same as for lunch or it is possible to substitute with a softly fried egg and unsalted cheese.

Before going to bed (21-22h): Cup of milk.